Korean Civil Society Submission for NETmundial


We firmly believe that global Internet governance should be based on the mulltistakeholder model and protection of human rights, two principles that are considered to be critical in sustaining the past and future of an Internet for the global community.


Internet Governance Principles

We firmly believe that global Internet governance should be based on the mulltistakeholder model and protection of human rights, two principles that are considered to be critical in sustaining the past and future of an Internet for the global community.


Genuine Multistakeholder Model


The influence of public policies on the Internet are transnational by nature and thus are being developed by the contributions and responsibilities of various global stakeholders. Therefore, it is essential that all relevant stakeholders are given equality of opportunity to participate in the shaping of Internet policies. However, the current Internet governance system has not fully ensured multistakeholder principles in its genuine meaning. The transparency of the policy shaping process has sometimes not been ensured and thus has been criticized as non-democratic, and some stakeholders were not given the opportunity to participate in a meaningful way. Public policies that significantly affect the Internet such as the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement(ACTA) had been developed completely in a non-transparent manner, excluding the participation of various stakeholders.


The recent emphasis on the multistakeholder model by numerous international organizations discussing Internet related public policies and the acceptance of this principle by many governmental organizations is definitely an encouraging sign. However, various interpretations of the multistakeholder model exist, some even going so far as to mean merely consulting the relevant stakeholders in the policy development process. While we do not believe that a single type of the multistakeholder model fits all, we firmly believe that we need to come to a consensus on following principles that need to be included in order to develop global Internet policies based on multistakeholder model.



In order to ensure a genuine multistakeholder model, we need to update and revise the Tunis Agenda. Paragraph 34 of the Tunis Agenda defines ‘working definition of Internet governance’, in which the stakeholders would be involved in internet governance “in their respective roles.”, and then paragraph 35 defines “the roles” of each stakeholder. However, the difficulty here is that there is no clear method of defining ‘stakeholders’ and also that different types of issues will necessarily entail different stakeholders. 


The roles of each stakeholder defined in paragraph 35 is not an adequate representatation of actual situations. For example, Civil society participation is not limited to the local community level. Civil societies all over the world are proactively participating in the full policy shaping process of not only local but global issues as an important stakeholder in many areas and our expertise on practical advocacy experiences as technical, academic, and business experts have been appreciated not only in our local communities but also in many global foras.Civil society is defending, protecting, taking solidarity actions with, converging, and sometimes representing the interests of marginalized and disadvantaged people, who are end-users as well as content generators over the Internet. Moreover, civil society as an agent advocating global public interests rather than private or national interests realizes the universal value of human rights even in internet policy areas, which are predominatedly  being affected by the establishment of the privileged private interests or big powers.


Moreover, paragraph 35 declares that the policy authority of Internet-related public policy issues are ‘the sovereign rights of states’ but when we consider that the Internet is transnational by nature and thus requires the cooperation of various stakeholders we should include the equal participation of such stakeholders in the policy making process. We acknowledge, however, the importance of the roles and responsibilities of governments of individual countries in setting national as well as global public policies.


Human Rights based approach 


The ultimate goal of utilizing the Internet as an essential resource in our society should be to promote the progress and happiness of the human race, and as such Internet governance principles should adopt the protection of human rights as its cardinal value. Numerous principles and charters on the Internet such as the IRP charter of the Internet Rights & Principles Coalition and the  Internet Rights Chater declared by the Association for Progressive Communications(APC) have detailed human rights provisions that need to be protected. We would like to place special emphasis on the following human rights principles.





We would like to propose the following principles related to the future of Internet ecosystems.


The Internet governance ecosystem should be founded on the principles stated above. Existing organizations related to Internet governance should be evaluated based on those principles, thus becoming more transparent in their operations and ensuring the participation of all stakeholders. The Internet governance ecosystem should be able to reflect a genuine multistakeholder model.


Since 2005, the Internet Governance Forum has been instrumental in providing a forum for the various stakeholders to come together and develop cooperative relationships through open discussions. We need to pay special attention to the recommendations of the “Working Group on Improvements to the Internet Governance Forum” when considering the future Internet governance ecosystems. The role of the IGF should be enhanced so that it may produce tangible outputs regarding Internet governance. We hope that this ‘Global Multistakeholder Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance would enable the IGF to continue to be an important forum for discussing future Internet governance arrangements.




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